Akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától
Humane killing of animals Introduction 1 The member States of the Council of Europe have decided that it is their aim to protect live animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes to ensure that any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm inflicted upon them, as a consequence of procedures being conducted upon them, shall be kept at a minimum.
The great majority of animals used in procedures must for practical reasons be kept under some sort of physical control in facilities ranging from outdoor corrals to cages for small animals in a laboratory animal house. This is a situation where there are highly conflicting interests.
Hogyan lehet a parazitákat tablettákkal megtisztítani Hogyan lehet eltávolítani a férgeket az arcáról Hogyan lehet eltávolítani a férgeket az arcról Hogyan alakul ki a szívférgesség? Pontyok helmintos fertőzéseinek kezelése Nézd meg filmünket, mi történhet egy szúnyogcsípéssel!
On the one hand, the animal whose needs in respect of movement, social relations and other manifestations of life must be restricted, on the other hand, the experimenter and his assistants who demand full control of the animal and its environment.
In this confrontation of interests the animal may sometimes be given secondary consideration. Any restriction on the extent to which an animal can satisfy its physiological and ethological needs shall be limited as far as practicable. It explains and supplements the basic principles adopted in Article 5.
Hardveres és szoftveres rendszerkövetelmények
The object is thus to help authorities, institutions and individuals in their pursuit of the aims of the Council of Europe in this matter. Its substance is the sum of material and non-material resources mobilised by man to obtain and maintain an animal in a physical and mental state where it suffers least and performs best in procedures. It starts from the moment the animal is destined to be used in procedures and continues until it is humanely killed or otherwise disposed of by the establishment in accordance with Article 11 of the Convention after the close of the procedure.
There are, however, several methods of breeding and keeping laboratory animals that differ chiefly in the degree of control of the microbiological environment. It has to be borne in mind that the staff concerned will sometimes have to judge from the character and condition of the animals where the recommended standards of space may not be sufficient, as with especially aggressive animals.
In applying the guidelines described in this appendix, the requirements of each of these situations should be taken into account. Furthermore, it is necessary to make clear the status of these guidelines.
larva of insect inside a human arm
Unlike the provisions of the Convention itself, they are not mandatory: they akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától recommendations to be used with discretion, designed as guidance to the practices and standards which all concerned should conscientiously strive to achieve. For example, it is self-evident that food and water must be provided see 3.
Pending replacement with equipment conforming with the present guidelines, these should as far as practicable be complied with akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától adjusting the numbers and sizes of animals placed in existing cages and pens.
Definitions In this Appendix A, in addition to the definitions contained in Article 1. Functions and general design 1. Any facility should be akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától constructed as to provide a suitable environment for the species housed. It should also be designed to prevent access by unauthorised persons. Facilities that are part of a larger building complex should also be protected by proper building toxoplazma mycoplasma and arrangements that limit the number of entrances and prevent unauthorised traffic.
It is recommended that there should be a maintenance programme for the facilities in order to prevent any defect of equipment.
Holding rooms 1. All necessary measures should be taken to ensure regular and efficient cleaning of the rooms and the maintenance of a satisfactory hygienic standard. Ceilings and walls should be damage-resistant with a smooth, impervious and easily washable surface.
Hogyan lehet eltávolítani a férgeket az arcáról
Special attention should be paid to junctions with doors, ducts, pipes and cables. Doors and windows, if any, should be constructed or protected so as to keep out unwanted animals.
Where appropriate, an inspection window may be fitted in the door. Floors should be smooth, impervious and have a non-slippery, easily washable surface which can carry the weight of racks and other heavy equipment without being damaged. Drains, if any, should be adequately covered and fitted with a barrier which will prevent animals from gaining access. Rooms where the animals are allowed to run freely should have walls and floors with a particularly resistant surface material to stand up to the heavy wear and tear caused by the animals and the cleaning process.
The material should not be detrimental to the akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától of the animals and be such that the animals cannot hurt themselves. Drains are desirable in such rooms. Additional férgek gyermek allergia esetén should be given to any equipment or fixtures so that they may not be damaged by the animals or hurt the animals themselves.
Where outdoor exercise areas are provided measures should be taken when appropriate to prevent access by the public and animals. Rooms intended for the holding of farm animals cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, poultry, etc. The majority of holding rooms are usually designed to house rodents.
Frequently such rooms may also be used to house larger species. Care should be taken not to house together species which are incompatible. Holding rooms should be provided with facilities for carrying out minor procedures and manipulations, where appropriate.
- Széklet szaga a szájból hogyan kell kezelni
- A Kaspersky Endpoint Security
Laboratories and general and special purpose procedure rooms 1. At breeding or supplying establishments suitable facilities for making consignments of animals ready for disptach should be made available. Provision should be made for the receipt of animals in such a way that incoming animals do not put at risk animals already present in the facility, for example by quarantining. General and special purpose procedure rooms should be made available for situations where it is undesirable to carry out the procedures or kontaktlencsék szaruhártya acanthamoeba in the holding room.
There should be appropriate accommodation for enabling animals which are ill or injured to be housed separately. Where appropriate, there should be provision for one or more separate rooms suitably equipped for the performance of surgical procedures under aseptic conditions.
There should be facilities for post-operative recovery where this is warranted. Service rooms 1. Store rooms for food should be cool and dry, vermin and insect proof and those for bedding, dry, vermin and insect proof. Other materials, which may be contaminated or present a hazard, should be stored separately. Store rooms for clean cages, instruments akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától other equipment should be available.
The cleaning and washing room should be large enough to accommodate the installations necessary to decontaminate and clean used equipment. The cleaning process should be arranged so as to separate the flow of clean and dirty equipment to prevent the contamination of newly cleaned equipment. Walls and floors should be covered with a suitably resistant surface material and the ventilation system should have ample capacity to carry away the excess heat and humidity.
Provision should be made for the hygienic storage and disposal of carcasses and animal waste. If incineration on the site is not possible or desirable, suitable arrangements should be made for the safe disposal of such material having regard to local regulation and by-laws. Special precautions should be taken with highly toxic or radioactive waste. The design and construction of circulation areas should correspond to the standards of the holding rooms.
- Milyen paraziták lehetnek az ízületekben
- Gyermekek férgek gyógyszerei pirantel ár
- Nemzeti Jogszabálytár
- Megszabadulni a pinwormoktól egy felnőttnél
The corridors should be wide enough to allow easy circulation of movable equipment. Ventilation 2.
Holding rooms should have an adequate ventilation system which should satisfy the requirements of the species housed. The purpose of the ventilation system is to provide fresh air and to keep down the level of odours, noxious gases, dust and infectious agents of any kind. It also provides for the removal of excess heat and humidity. The air in the room should be renewed at frequent intervals.
A ventilation rate of 15—20 air changes per hour is normally adequate. However, in some circumstances, where stocking density is low, 8—10 air changes per hour may suffice or mechanical ventilation may not even be needed at all.
Other circumstances may necessitate a much higher rate of air change. Recirculation of untreated air should be avoided. However, it should be emphasised that even the most efficient system cannot compensate for poor cleaning routines or negligence. The ventilation system should be so designed as to avoid harmful draughts. Smoking in rooms where there are animals should be forbidden.
Paraziták és parazita adaptáció platyhelmintákban
Table 1 gives the range within which it is recommeded that the temperature should be maintained. It should also be emphasised that the figures apply szuszpenziós parazita to adult, normal animals. Newborn and young animals will often require a much higher temperature level. The temperature of the premises should be regulated according to possible changes in the animals' thermal regulation which may be due to special physiological conditions or to the effects of the procedures.
Under the climatic conditions prevailing in Europe it may be necessary to provide a ventilation system having the capacity both to heat and cool the air supplied. In user establishments a precise temperature control in the holding rooms may be required, because the environmental temperature is a physical akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától which has a profound effect on the metabolism of all animals.
Humidity Extreme variations in relative humidity RH have akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától adverse effect on the health and well-being of animals. Lighting In windowless rooms, it is necessary to provide controlled lighting both to satisfy the biological requirements of the animals and to provide a satisfactory working environment.
It is also necessary to have a control of the intensity and of the light-dark cycle. When keeping albino animals, one should take into account their sensitivity to light see also 2. Noise Noise can be an important disturbing factor in the animal quarters.
Holding akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától and procedure rooms should be insulated against loud noise sources in the audible and in the higher frequencies in order to avoid disturbances in the behaviour and the physiology of the animals. Sudden noises may lead to considerable change in organ functions but, as they are often unavoidable, it is sometimes advisable to provide holding and procedure rooms with a continuous sound of moderate intensity such as soft music.
Alarm systems A facility housing a large number of animals is vulnerable. It is therefore recommended that the facility is duly protected by the installation of devices to detect fires and the intrusion of unauthorised persons. Technical defects or a break-down of the akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától system is another hazard which could cause distress and even the death of animals, akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától to suffocation and overheating or, in less serious cases, have such negative effects on a procedure that it will be a failure and have to be repeated.
Adequate monitoring devices should therefore be installed in connection with the heating and ventilation plant to enable the staff to supervise its operation in general. If warranted, a stand-by generator should be provided for the maintenance of life support systems for the animals and lighting in the event of a break-down or the withdrawal of supply. Clear instructions on emergency procedures should be prominently displayed.
Alarms for fish tanks are recommended in case of failure of the water supply. Care should be taken to ensure that the operation of an alarm system causes as little disturbance as possible to the animals. Health 3. The person in charge of the establishment should ensure regular inspection of the animals and supervision of the accommodation and care by a veterinarian or other competent person.
According to the assessment of the potential hazard to the animals, appropriate attention should be paid to the health and hygiene of the staff. Capture Wild and feral animals should be captured only by humane methods and by experienced persons who have a thorough knowledge of the habits and habitats of the animals to be caught.
If an anaesthetic or any other drug has to be used in the capturing operation, it should be administered by a veterinarian or other competent person. Any animal which is seriously injured should be presented as soon as possible to a veterinarian for treatment.
If the animal, in the opinion of the veterinarian, can only go on living with suffering or pain it should be killed at once by a humane method. In the absence of a veterinarian, any animal which may be seriously injured should be killed at once by a humane method.
Packing and transport conditions All transportation is undoubtedly, for the animals, a stressful experience, which should be mitigated as far as possible.
Animals should be in good health for transportation and it is the duty of the sender to ensure that they are so. Animals which are sick or otherwise out of condition should never be subjected to any transport which is not necessary for therapeutic or diagnostic reasons.
Special care should be exercised with female animals in an advanced state of pregnancy. Female animals which are likely to give birth during the transport or which have done so within the preceding forty-eight hours, and their offspring, should be excluded from transportation.
Every precaution should be taken by sender and carrier in packing, stowing and transit to avoid unnecessary suffering through inadequate ventilation, exposure to extreme temperatures, lack of feed and water, long delays, etc.
The receiver should be properly informed about the transport details and documentary particulars to ensure quick handling and reception in the place of arrival. Even in the case of States which are not Parties to the European Convention on the Protection of Animals During International Transport, strict observance of the provisions of this Convention is recommended; strict observance of national laws and regulations as well as of the regulations for live animals of the International Air Transport Association and the Animal Air Transport Association is also recommended.
Reception and unpacking The consignments of animals should be received and unpacked without avoidable delay. After inspection, the animals should be transferred to clean cages or pens and be supplied with feed and water as appropriate. Animals which are sick or otherwise out of condition should be kept under close observation and separately from other animals. They should be examined by a veterinarian or other competent person as soon as possible and, where necessary, treated.
Animals which do not have any chance to recover should be killed at once by élő élősködő szervezet humane method. Finally, all animals received must be registered and marked in accordance with the provisions of Articles 16, 17 and 24 of the Convention. Transport boxes should be destroyed immediately if proper decontamination is impossible.
Quarantine, isolation and acclimatisation 3. The objects of quarantine are: a to protect other animals in the establishment; akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától to protect man against zoonotic infection; c to foster good scientific practice.
Unless the state of health of animals introduced into an establishment is satisfactory, it is recommended that they should undergo a period of quarantine. In some cases, that of rabies, for example, this period may be laid down in the national regulations of the Party. In others, it will vary and should be determined by a competent person, according to the circumstances, normally the veterinarian appointed by the establishment see also Table 2.
Animals may be used for procedures during the quarantine period as long as they have become acclimatised to their new environment and they present no significant risk to other animals or man.
Drotfereg elleni vedekezes Paraziták és parazita adaptáció platyhelmintákban Drotfereg elleni vedekezes Házilagos gyomirtó-teszt vastagbél méregtelenítő otthon Jó parazitá gyógymod éves baba férgek, hogyan lehet megszabadulni, galandféreg tünetei emberben bélférgek fajtái képekkel.
It is recommended that facilities should be set aside in which to isolate animals showing signs of or suspected of ill-health and which might present a hazard to man or to other animals.
Even when the animals are seen to be in sound health it is good husbandry for them to undergo a period of acclimatisation before being used in a procedure.
The time required depends on several factors, such as the stress to which the animals have been subjected which in turn depends on several factors such as the duration of the transportation and the age of the animal.
This time shall be decided by a competent person. Caging 3.
It is possible to make a distinction between two broad systems of housing animals. Firstly, there is the system found in breeding, supplying and user establishments in the bio-medical field designed to accommodate animals such as rodents, rabbits, carnivores, birds and non-human primates, sometimes also ruminants, swine and horses.
Suggested guidelines for cages, pens, runs and stalls suitable for such facilities are presented akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától Tables 3 to Supplementary guidance on minimum cage areas is found in Figures 1 to 7. Furthermore, a corresponding guidance for the appraisal of the stocking density in cages is presented in Figures 8 to Secondly, there is the system frequently found in establishments conducting procedures only on farm or similar large animals.
The facilities in such establishments should not be less than those required by current veterinary standards. Cages and pens should not be made out of material that is deterimental to the health of the animals, and their design should be such that the animals cannot injure themselves and, unless they are disposable, they should be made from a resistant material adapted to cleaning and decontamination techniques.
In particular attention should be given to the design of cage and pen floors which should vary according to the species and age of the animals and be designed to facilitate the removal of excreta. Pens should be designed for the well-being of the species. They should permit the satisfaction of certain ethological needs for example, the need to climb, hide or shelter temporarily and be designed for efficient cleaning and freedom from akik megtisztították magukat a paraziták felülvizsgálatától with other animals.